If you have ever wondered how your intelligence is influenced by education and training, there are plenty of studies on this topic. Here are some to consider.
Heritability is a statistic that measures how much variation in a trait is due to genetic factors. Usually, heritability is interpreted as a percentage of the difference between two groups of people. However, heritability does not provide a precise value for any trait, nor does it measure how sensitive a trait is to environmental changes.
A number of genes play a role in the development of intelligence. Specifically, phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH) is the gene responsible for the accumulation of phenylalanine. If this gene were missing, the person would be mentally retarded. The heritability of IQ varies from 0.22 in early childhood to 0.8 in adulthood.
In addition to genetics, an environment plays a crucial role in maximizing the individual’s capabilities. Developing nations typically have more diverse environments than developed countries. Moreover, the brain is a malleable organ. It is also influenced by educational practices.
Several studies have investigated how heritability and education influence cognitive functions. Some of these studies are based on twins, while others are based on studies of individuals. Studies based on twins have demonstrated an increase in heritability for cognitive abilities in children from more deprived families.
A large number of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) are present in the human genome. These are used to calculate SNP heritabilities. For example, the heritability of academic achievement in British A-level students was calculated between 0.35 and 0.75.
A study of the heritability of educational attainment, involving more than a million participants, showed that a wide range of heritabilities were associated with various traits. Among these, SNP heritabilities ranged from 13.4% to 26.0%.
Many of the genetically-related traits involved in learning are highly heritable. These include personality, temperament, and the ability to control behavior toward self-directed goals.
Interestingly, a study on educational attainment found that the heritability of intelligence was relatively low during infancy, but increased to a high level during adulthood. This suggests that random experiences during the first few years of life most likely relate to educational processes.
In addition, heritability of education does not indicate how much a trait is influenced by a person’s environment. However, the heritability of intelligence is a statistical measure of how much variation in a trait is due specifically to genetic differences.
Crystallized intelligence vs fluid intelligence
Crystallized intelligence and fluid intelligence are two separate types of cognitive abilities. However, they are actually connected in some ways. This article explores their similarities and differences.
Crystallized intelligence refers to the ability to store, use and apply knowledge in a variety of situations. It includes the capability to solve problems by using logic, skills and experience.
Crystallized intelligence is often associated with math. In fact, the Japanese Psychological Association has highlighted its importance.
One theory suggests that crystallized intelligence is based on the ability to accumulate, synthesize, and utilize information from memory. The other is the idea that intelligence is a combination of different mental abilities. Both are important predictors of workplace performance.
Although both types of intelligence can be increased, crystallized intelligence tends to plateau after adolescence and declines through adulthood. As a result, it is important to take a comprehensive approach to increasing the ability of both types.
Research shows that both types of intelligence are highly responsive to education and training. For example, crystallized knowledge assessments are used in schools to test learned facts. Other tests include vocabulary tests and verbal tests.
Unlike crystallized intelligence, which increases with age, fluid intelligence begins to decrease at 60 or 70 years old. But it can also continue to increase throughout an individual’s life.
In addition to the ability to solve problems, fluid intelligence is a vital component of reading, reading comprehension, and learning. It helps people learn quickly and acquire new information.
In addition to the cognitive abilities involved, crystallized and fluid intelligence are also affected by the health of the brain. If the brain is damaged, the user may have trouble remembering things from the past. Similarly, if the person is older, they may be unable to apply crystallized intelligence to new tasks.
These are just a few of the similarities and differences between the two types of intelligence. In order to gain the most advantage from both kinds of abilities, it is necessary to learn the proper memory techniques. By doing so, you can also boost your crystallized intelligence.
Crystallized and fluid intelligence are also affected by changes in the person’s culture and education. Having a good education and a strong cultural background can help you achieve more in life.
Sternberg’s view of intelligence
Robert Sternberg, an educational psychologist, has devoted considerable attention to the study of human intelligence. He has studied many aspects of human intellectual development and is especially interested in the relationship between intelligence and tacit knowledge. His work will be of interest to those involved in adult education, especially those who are concerned with intellectual training.
Sternberg in his free essays has argued that conventional conceptions of intelligence have a limited focus. They are insufficient for predicting real-world performance. In particular, they are ill-suited to predicting success in the workplace.
According to his view, intelligence is malleable and can be shaped by the context in which it is developed. Therefore, it should be tailored to fit the needs of the individual. It should also take into account factors such as gender, age and culture.
Sternberg is a proponent of cognitive-contextual theories, which seek to explain how individuals develop cognitive processes in different settings. These include interpersonal, social, creative, and practical intelligences. Each type focuses on a specific skill or skill set and helps one understand how to apply that skill to novel situations.
The triarchic theory of intelligence that Sternberg outlines focuses on the practical, creative and contextual aspects of intelligence. Its aim is to explain the characteristics of successful people. Successful individuals are capable of combining all three forms of intelligence to reach their goals.
Sternberg and his colleagues have proposed a training program to increase intellectual skills. This involves examining the most prominent approaches to intelligence and applying the findings of each discipline to develop a coherent, comprehensive form. After the training program is completed, students are exposed to the triarchic theory.
Sternberg has also proposed a model of mental self-government and a set of intellectual styles. These models represent an alternative to the commonly-held notions of intelligence. Although his work is largely applicable to public schools, it will be interesting to see how his research will affect adult education.
Finally, Sternberg believes that some forms of intellectual behaviour are inherent to being human. This can provide some guidance in determining how to improve performance. However, most professionals agree that most learning relevant to careers takes place after formal training.